As an article in the journal Current Biology explained earlier this week, the COVID-19 pandemic is repeatedly demonstrating the vital need for animal studies. Today, Wired Magazine provided additional proof in a story titled “Making a COVID-19 Vaccine Is Hard. Making One for Kids Is Harder.“ Writer Gregory Barber explains how monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center are providing critical information to help us understand how COVID-19 vaccines will impact children.
Here’s an excerpt:
For those feeling lost in this time-bending pandemic summer, consider this frame of reference: the birthing season of the rhesus macaque. At the California National Primate Research Center, the first infants of the year arrived in February, just as the virus took hold in the surrounding area. The births continued through the spring, during which the virus surged and adult monkeys became a key model to plumb how humans might respond to the virus and vaccines. The last infants of the season showed up a few weeks ago. Among those stragglers, 16 were selected for an experiment: an inoculation with one of two Covid-19 vaccine candidates currently in late-stage clinical trials. It’s a first step toward answering a question that’s received little attention in that warp-speed, all-hands-on-deck effort: how children will respond to a Covid-19 vaccine.
A newly published article in the Cell Press journal Current Biology examines how the novel coronavirus pandemic has demonstrated the continued need for animal studies. The paper was penned by researches at several institutions across The Netherlands and Germany. As the authors explain, the only way the current crisis can be solved is through the development of vaccines and/or antiviral and adjunctive drug therapies. This requires biomedical research and specifically animal studies.
The authors voice their support for non-animal alternatives. But at the same time they explain “currently there is no integrated replacement model to be able to completely replace animal research to study the complex functions of the body.“
The paper also includes several detailed examples of how animal models are aiding the fight against COVID-19:
- The use of ferrets to investigate the transmission route of SARS- CoV-2.
- Lung pathology studies in nonhuman primates that help us understand how COVID-19 impacts the body.
- The paper authors highlight remdesivir, an antiviral drug developed and tested in animal models to treat Ebola infections. They go on to explain the drug was found to effectively reduce symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques.
The article focuses at length on the importance of animals in vaccine efficacy and safety tests. This is a vital need illustrated by tests of a SARS-CoV-1 vaccine candidate in 2004 that alarmingly found some vaccinated ferrets developed hepatitis, rather than protection against the virus
Animal studies have revealed additional encouraging data about the investigational vaccine being developed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Moderna. The candidate, named mRNA-1273, protected mice from infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The research appears today in the journal Nature. Additional research collaborators were involved in the published study.
The findings show the investigational vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in mice when given two intramuscular injections of a 1-microgram (mcg) dose three weeks apart. Additional experiments found that mice given two injections of the 1-mcg dose and later challenged with SARS-CoV-2 virus either 5 or 13 weeks after the second injection were protected from viral replication in the lungs and nose. Importantly, mice challenged 7 weeks after only a single dose of 1 mcg or 10 mcg of mRNA-1273 were also protected against viral replication in the lungs. The investigational vaccine also induced robust CD8 T-cell responses in mice. It did not induce the type of cellular immune response that has been linked to vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease.
Today’s news is just the latest in a series of animal studies that have provided helpful data in the development of COVID-19 vaccines. Research results released last week showed the same vaccine from NIAID/Moderna was able to quickly clear the infection from the lungs of nonhuman primates that were vaccinated and then exposed. Meanwhile, a separate vaccine being developed by Johnson & Johnson has been shown to protect monkeys from infection.
A new study suggests memory T cells might protect some people infected with SARS-CoV-2 by remembering past encounters with other human coronaviruses. The finding might help explain why some people seem to fend off COVID-19 and may be less susceptible to becoming severely ill.
To come to this conclusion, researchers obtained and analyzed blood samples from 36 people who’d recently recovered from mild to severe COVID-19. All these individuals produced T cells that recognize multiple parts of SARS-CoV-2. They then compared this data to people who’d survived SARS. Interestingly, those memory T cells, acquired in response to SARS-CoV-1, also recognized parts of SARS-CoV-2.
Finally, the team looked at healthy individuals with no history of either COVID-19 or SARS. To their surprise, more than half had T cells that recognize one or more of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins being studied. It’s still not clear if this acquired immunity stemmed from previous infection with coronaviruses that cause the common cold or perhaps from exposure to other as-yet unknown coronaviruses.
Overall, the study makes clear that past experiences with coronavirus infections may have something important to tell us about COVID-19.
Late this afternoon, the National Institutes of Health announced preliminary phase 1 results of mRNA-1273, an investigational vaccine designed to protect against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The vaccine candidate was one of the first to reach clinical trials. This was due in part to prior animal studies of related vaccines also developed collaboratively by NIH and Moderna Inc.
According to the NIH, the vaccine was generally well tolerated and prompted neutralizing antibody activity in healthy adults. mRNA-1273 is designed to induce neutralizing antibodies directed at a portion of the coronavirus “spike” protein, which the virus uses to bind to and enter human cells. A Phase 2 clinical trial of mRNA-1273 began enrollment in late May. Plans are underway to launch a Phase 3 efficacy trial in July 2020.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) today announced it has established a new clinical trials network. The network seeks to enroll thousands of volunteers to test a variety of investigational vaccines and monoclonal antibodies intended to protect people from COVID-19.
The COVID-19 Prevention Trials Network (COVPN) was established by merging four existing NIAID-funded clinical trials networks: the HIV Vaccine Trials Network, based in Seattle; the HIV Prevention Trials Network, based in Durham, N.C.; the Infectious Diseases Clinical Research Consortium, based in Atlanta; and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, based in Los Angeles.
The first Phase 3 clinical trial the COVPN is expected to conduct will involve testing the investigational mRNA-1273 vaccine, developed by NIAID scientists and their collaborators at the biotechnology company Moderna, Inc., based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. That study is expected to begin this summer.
The National Institutes of Health is today hosting a livestream where NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins and NIAID Director Dr. Anthony Fauci discuss the status of the COVID-19 pandemic. They will also provide an update on progress to combat the disease. The live presentation will take place at 2:30 pm ET on the NIH Facebook and Twitter feeds. Those links can be found below.
Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, provided a dire warning today during a Senate committee hearing. “We are now having 40-plus thousand new cases a day. I would not be surprised if we go up to 100,000 a day if this does not turn around,” Fauci said in response to a question about the likely U.S. coronavirus death toll
Meanwhile, the European Union has confirmed that Americans will not be allowed to travel to the bloc of 27 countries when it reopens to some foreign travel Wednesday.
Washington Post: Fauci testifies new coronavirus cases could ‘go up to 100,000 a day’
The latest addition to AMP’s COVID-19 video series is now out. The short movie highlights and corrects many of the myths, conspiracy theories and untruths that have spread along with the novel coronavirus itself. As you might expect, the video focuses on some of the misleading claims made by animal research opponents. But it also features other false statements that have impeded America’s ability to respond to the global pandemic.
The video is titled “Debunking the Myths Surrounding COVID-19. ” It can be found on both YouTube and Vimeo. The links are below. AMP has also posted the clip on our COVID-19 resources pages and on all our social media channels including Facebook and Twitter.
We hope you take the time to watch. And if you like it, please share it on your social media channels.
A new study in Science Translational Medicine claims as many as 8.7 million Americans were infected with COVID-19 in March, but more than 80% of them were never diagnosed.
The estimate comes from a review of cases where patients went to the doctor with influenza-like illnesses that were never diagnosed as coronavirus, influenza or any of the other viruses that usually circulate in winter. Only 100,000 novel coronavirus cases were officially reported during that time period.