Animal Research

Latest Research News

Drug gets body cells to ‘eat and destroy’ cancer

Photo credit BBC News/ Getty Images

Scientists have designed a special type of drug that helps the body eat and destroy cancerous cells.

The treatment boosts the action of white blood cells, called macrophages, that the immune system uses to gobble up unwanted invaders. Tests in mice showed the therapy worked for aggressive breast and skin tumours, Nature Biomedical Engineering journal reports.

The US team behind the study hope to begin human trials within a few years. Read more.

Published by July 3, 2018 by BBC News

Rhesus Macaque Model Offers Route to Study Zika Brain Pathology

Written by Andy Fell

Photo Credit: Kathy West/California Primate Research Center

Rhesus macaque monkeys infected in utero with Zika virus develop similar brain pathology to human infants, according to a report by researchers at the California National Primate Research Center and School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of California, Davis, published June 20 in Nature Communications.

Rhesus macaques may be a suitable model system to study how Zika virus infection during pregnancy affects the fetus and to find ways to prevent, diagnose, mitigate or treat it, said Koen Van Rompay, research virologist at the CNPRC. Read more.

Published June 20, 2018 by UC Davis

The secret to living longer? According to fruit flies, it’s in your gut.

The Secret to Living Longer? It’s in your gut.

New research, published in Scientific Reports, revealed that fruit flies fed a combination of probiotics and an herbal supplement called Triphala led longer, healthier lives.

“The fruit fly is a powerful model system since it retains 70% of the core biochemical pathways in humans; however is simpler allowing researchers to more easily delineate signaling pathways. The same goes with the gut microbiome. In humans, there are thousands of species working together to elicit an effect whereas in flies, there are only 10-20 active species allowing us to study more specifically the impact of a supplemented probiotic on the Drosophila physiology,” Susan Westfall, a former Ph.D. student at McGill University and lead author of the study, explained to ALN. Read more.

Published June 15, 2018 by ALN Magazine

A Shot against Cancer Slated for Testing in Massive Dog Study

Written by Keridwen Cornelius

Dog receiving a vaccination. Photo credit ScientificAmerica/Getty Images

Stephen Johnston dreams of a future in which humans could protect themselves against all types of cancer with a single shot. As the biochemist envisions it, this prophylactic injection would train the immune system to pick off cancerous cells before they could mobilize into malignancies. The catch: many oncology specialists insist this is scientifically impossible.

Critics of the concept say tumor cells are too genetically complex to be consistently thwarted by zeroing in on any one target. Yet Johnston and colleagues at Arizona State University have been working on an experimental inoculation for the past 12 years. They tested blood from hundreds of humans and dogs with cancer to identify potential vaccine targets, then came up with vaccine cocktails and experimentally tested them in hundreds of mice with tumors. The researchers believe they have now identified a recipe that has the right stuff to keep tumors from forming. Johnston says his vaccine cocktail instructions remain unpublished because he made a strategic decision not to release them before securing intellectual property rights. Read more.

Published June 7, 2018 by ScientificAmerica

No More Sweet Tooth? Science Turns Off Sugar Cravings in Mice

Written by John Perritano

Researcher’s conducting experiments on mice (aren’t they cute?) concluded that the brain’s complex system for tasting can be manipulated, erased or modified, which could have important implications for human weight control and eating disorder research. Photo credit: ullstein bild/Getty Images

Can you imagine biting into a succulent piece of chocolate cake and not craving more? What if you popped a piece of sweet, sweet candy in your mouth, only to spit it out because it tasted bitter? Scientists at Columbia University have found a way to stop mice from craving, or even tasting, sugary and bitter treats. The research could prove beneficial in treating obesity and eating disorders in humans.

The human brain is hardwired to enjoy the pleasing, almost euphoric effect of food, especially sugar. Here’s why: The minute you take a bite of a cookie or some other food, specialized cells on the tongue react with what you just ate. Each of these so-called receptor cells is programmed to respond to one taste — sweet, sour, bitter, salty or umami (savory). The receptor cells then take that information and send it to specific regions of the brain. Consequently, we can identify the taste — allowing us to respond appropriately. We might say “yum” when eating a candy bar or pucker our lips when sucking on a lemon. That’s because taste is closely tied to our emotions. Every bite produces a variety of memories, reactions and thoughts. We might remember a pleasant experience at a birthday party where cake and candy were served, or how tart grandma’s lemonade really was. Read more.

Published May 21, 2018 by HowStuffWorks

Two teams independently come up with a way to avert CRS in CAR T-cell therapies

Written by: Bob Yirka

Scanning electron micrograph of a human T lymphocyte (also called a T cell) from the immune system of a healthy donor. Credit: NIAID

Two teams of researchers, one working in the U.S., the other in Italy, have come up with new ways to avert cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in leukemia patients who undergo CAR T-cell therapies. In the first, the researchers working at the Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York developed a mouse model to replicate the conditions under which CRS develops. They were able to isolate a key molecule involved in the syndrome and then found a drug that blocks it. The second team developed a different mouse model and found the same molecule involved. But instead of blocking it, they genetically modified the T-cells to prevent CRS from arising in the first place. Both have published their results in the journal Nature Medicine. Cliona Rooney and Tim Sauer with Baylor College offer a News & Views piece on the work done by the two teams in the same journal issue. Read more.

Published 29, 2018 by Medical Xpress

How Intestinal Worms Hinder Tuberculosis Vaccination

Written by PLOS

New research in mice suggests that chronic infection with intestinal worms indirectly reduces the number of cells in lymph nodes near the skin, inhibiting the immune system’s response to the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for tuberculosis. Xiaogang Feng of Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, and colleagues present these findings in PLOS Pathogens.

Many people worldwide receive the BCG vaccine to boost their immune response to bacteria that cause tuberculosis, lowering risk of the disease. Previous studies have shown that the vaccine, which is injected into the skin, is less effective in people with chronic intestinal worm infections, but the reason for this inhibition was unclear. Read more.

Published May 21, 2018, by ALN

NIH-funded researchers identify target for chikungunya treatment

NIH News Release

Photo Credit: NIH. Female (left) and male (right) Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Female A. aegypti mosquitoes can carry chikungunya virus. NIAID

Scientists have identified a molecule found on human cells and some animal cells that could be a useful target for drugs against chikungunya virus infection and related diseases, according to new research published in the journal Nature. A team led by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis conducted the research, which was funded in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. Read more.

Published May 21, 2018, by NIH

Stem cell signaling drives mammary gland development and, possibly, breast cancer

Written by: Katherine Unger Baillie

A Penn-led team identified Dll1, a signaling molecule as a marker of mammary gland stem cells, and one that plays a vital role in normal development of the mammary tissue. Above, a cross-section of a mouse mammary gland. (Image: Sushil Kumar and Rumela Chakrabarti)

The human body develops most tissue types during fetal development, in a mother’s uterus. Yet one only tissue develops after birth: the mammary gland. This milk-producing organ, a defining characteristic of mammals, is also the site of one of the most common cancers, breast cancer, which affects roughly one in eight women in the United States over the course of their lifetime. Read more.

Published May 17, 2018, by Penn Today, Office of University of Pennsylvania