News Archive

Salamanders’ immune systems are key to their remarkable ability to regrow limbs, and could also underpin their ability to regenerate spinal cords, brain tissue and even parts of their hearts, scientists have found.

In research published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences researchers from the Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute (ARMI) at Monash University found that when immune cells known as macrophages were systemically removed, salamanders lost their ability to regenerate a limb and instead formed scar tissue.

Tuesday, May 21, 2013 - 15:21

While the effects of acute stroke have been widely studied, brain damage during the subacute phase of stroke has been a neglected area of research. Now, a new study by the University of South Florida reports that within a week of a stroke caused by a blood clot in one side of the brain, the opposite side of the brain shows signs of microvascular injury.

Monday, May 20, 2013 - 15:23

Australian scientists are hoping dogs with dementia will help them devise a treatment for people suffering from the condition.

Thursday, May 16, 2013 - 16:22

When the brain's primary "learning center" is damaged, complex new neural circuits arise to compensate for the lost function, say life scientists from UCLA and Australia who have pinpointed the regions of the brain involved in creating those alternate pathways — often far from the damaged site.

Thursday, May 16, 2013 - 15:50

Scientists at Oregon Health & Science University and the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) have successfully reprogrammed human skin cells to become embryonic stem cells capable of transforming into any other cell type in the body. It is believed that stem cell therapies hold the promise of replacing cells damaged through injury or illness. Diseases or conditions that might be treated through stem cell therapy include Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, cardiac disease and spinal cord injuries.

Wednesday, May 15, 2013 - 13:30

Into brains of newborn mice, researchers implanted human “progenitor cells.” These mature into a type of brain cell called astrocytes. They grew into human astrocytes, crowding out mouse astrocytes. The mouse brains became chimeras of human and mouse, with the workhorse mouse brain cells – neurons – nurtured by billions of human astrocytes. Human astrocytes certainly inspired the mice. Genetically engineered "astrocytes" have improved rodents' memories and learning capabilities.

Friday, May 10, 2013 - 15:07

Epilepsy that does not respond to drugs can be halted in adult mice by transplanting a specific type of cell into the brain, UC San Francisco researchers have discovered, raising hope that a similar treatment might work in severe forms of human epilepsy.

Wednesday, May 8, 2013 - 15:20

UCLA life scientists have identified a gene previously implicated in Parkinson's disease that can delay the onset of aging and extend the healthy life span of fruit flies. The research, they say, could have important implications for aging and disease in humans.

Tuesday, May 7, 2013 - 16:33

UCSF scientists controlled seizures in epileptic mice with a one-time transplantation of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells, which inhibit signaling in overactive nerve circuits, into the hippocampus, a brain region associated with seizures, as well as with learning and memory. Other researchers had previously used different cell types in rodent cell transplantation experiments and failed to stop seizures.

Monday, May 6, 2013 - 16:02

Whitehead Institute Founding Member Rudolf Jaenisch, who helped transform the study of genetics by creating the first transgenic mouse in 1974, is again revolutionizing how genetically altered animal models are created and perhaps even redefining what species may serve as models.

Friday, May 3, 2013 - 14:54

Scientists have identified a gene that keeps our nerve fibers from clogging up. Researchers in Ken Miller’s laboratory at the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF) found that the unc-16 gene of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a gatekeeper that restricts flow of cellular organelles from the cell body to the axon, a long, narrow extension that neurons use for signaling. Organelles clogging the axon could interfere with neuronal signaling or cause the axon to degenerate, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. This research, published in the May 2013 Genetics Society of America’s journal GENETICS, adds an unexpected twist to our understanding of trafficking within neurons.

Thursday, May 2, 2013 - 09:53

Jackson Laboratory scientists announced Tuesday that they will use mice as clinical stand-ins, or “avatars,” for human patients with cancerous tumors to help test and create genetically-tailored cancer treatments.

Thursday, May 2, 2013 - 09:52

New research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis points to a common species of bacteria as an important contributor to bacterial vaginosis, a condition linked to preterm birth and increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

Wednesday, April 24, 2013 - 15:28

Study shows grapes reduced inflammation and fat storage, improved antioxidant defense

Tuesday, April 23, 2013 - 15:34

Neuroscientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have taken a major step in their efforts to help people with memory loss tied to brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Friday, April 19, 2013 - 13:50

When scientists began sequencing the zebrafish genome in 2001, the model organism was a favourite of biologists studying early development of the brain and other organs. Few others found much use for the small, stripy fish with see-through embryos. More than a decade later, with its genome finally unveiled today, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become the go-to animal for researchers studying many human diseases — as well as those investigating new treatments.

Thursday, April 18, 2013 - 15:15

US scientists have designed a super-grip plaster covered with microscopic needles to heal surgical wounds.

The "bed-of-needles" patch, inspired by a parasitic worm that lives in the guts of fish and clings on using its cactus-like spikes, fixes skin grafts firmly in place without the need for staples.

Wednesday, April 17, 2013 - 14:06

When she was head of a cardiac imaging center at UCLA, Barbara Natterson-Horowitz was asked one day to perform echocardiography on the failing heart of the Los Angeles Zoo’s python. As the cardiologist gazed on an image of the snake’s one-ventricle heart, it occurred to her that snakes might offer clues for treating children born without a septum between their ventricles.

At that moment, she began to see a connection between the health of humans and that of what she would call our nonhuman brethren.

Tuesday, April 16, 2013 - 15:20

The oil, which has been long used by Aborigines to treat skin wounds, was discovered to be capable of speeding the repair of the intestines and treating a variety of common bowel diseases.

Researchers at Adelaide University found the oil is an effective anti-inflammatory and can accelerate the repair of the bowels by stimulating growth of intestinal "crypts", which assist with absorbing food.

Up to 60 per cent of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy receive painful intestinal ulcers but there are currently "no effective treatment options", the researchers said.

Monday, April 15, 2013 - 14:06

In a new study by scientists at King's College London and the University of Arizona (UA) published in Science reveals the deep similarities in how the brain regulates behaviour in arthropods (such as flies and crabs) and vertebrates (such as fish, mice and humans). The findings shed new light on the evolution of the brain and behaviour and may aid understanding of disease mechanisms underlying mental health problems.

A new study by scientists at King's College London and the University of Arizona (UA) published in Science reveals the deep similarities in how the brain regulates behaviour in arthropods (such as flies and crabs) and vertebrates (such as fish, mice and humans). The findings shed new light on the evolution of the brain and behaviour and may aid understanding of disease mechanisms underlying mental health problems.

Read more at: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-04-strikingly-similar-brains-aid-mental.html#jCp
A new study by scientists at King's College London and the University of Arizona (UA) published in Science reveals the deep similarities in how the brain regulates behaviour in arthropods (such as flies and crabs) and vertebrates (such as fish, mice and humans). The findings shed new light on the evolution of the brain and behaviour and may aid understanding of disease mechanisms underlying mental health problems.

Read more at: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-04-strikingly-similar-brains-aid-mental.html#jCp

Friday, April 12, 2013 - 13:52